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CAREER EDUCATION: GLOSSARY
A B C D E F G H I J
L M N O P R S T U
ACINet. America’s Career InfoNet.
ACK. America’s Career Kit.
ACRN. America’s Career Resource Network.
ACSCI. Association of Computer-Based Systems for Career Information.
ACTE. Association for Career and Technical Education.
AJB. America’s Job Bank.
ALMIS. America’s Labor Market Information System.
Adult basic education.
Adult general education.
Adult secondary education.
ASVAB. Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery.
Career program certificate.
CIDS. Career Information Delivery System in the USA.
CIP. Classification of Instruction Programs.
CIS. Career Information System.
Continuing Workforce Education.
Co-operative career education.
CV. Curriculum Vitae.
Degree Vocational Education Program.
DoE. United States Department of Education.
DoL. United States Department of Labor.
DOT. Dictionary of Occupational Titles.
GATB. General Aptitude Test Battery.
GOE. Guide for Occupational Exploration.
Human performance technology.
ICDM. Improved Career Decision Making in a Changing World.
NCDA. US National Career Development Association.
NCDG. US National Career Development Guidelines.
NOICC. National Occupational Information Coordinating Committee.
O*NET. The Occupational Information Network.
OIS. Occupational Information System.
One-stop career centers.
OOH. Occupational Outlook Handbook.
SCANS. The Secretary’s Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills.
Twenty-First Century Community Learning.
WIA. Workforce Investment Act.
Workforce development education.
Accomplishments. These are the achievements you have had in your career. These key points really help sell you to an employer (much more so than everyday job duties or responsibilities). In your cover letters, resumes, and job interviews, focus on key career accomplishments, especially ones that you can quantify.
ACINet. America’s Career InfoNet. ACINet is a web-based tool for job seekers, employers, human resource specialists, and workforce development specialists. On this website, which is part of the U.S. Department of Labor’s Career One-Stop Center System, users can learn about typical wages and employment trends across occupations and industries; check education, knowledge, skills, and abilities against requirements for most occupations; search for employer contact information nationwide, cost of living data and call up state profiles with labor market conditions; and find nearly 5,500 external links to the most extensive set of career resources available on the Internet.
ACK. America’s Career Kit. The U.S. Department of Labor’s predecessor to Career One-Stop.
ACRN. America’s Career Resource Network. The ACRN is made up of state entities that work to improve career decision-making of students and their parents by relating educational decisions and experience to occupational exploration, career choice, and vocational preparation.
ACSCI. Association of Computer-Based Systems for Career Information. Formed in 1978, ACSCI is a professional association dedicated to the advancement of career information and its delivery. ACSCI has worked to advance the quality of information technology, career information, and user-services through standards, professional development opportunities, and public information.
ACTE. Association for Career and Technical Education. Formerly known as American Vocational Association, ACTE is the largest national educational association dedicated to the advancement of education to prepare youth and adults for careers.
AJB. America’s Job Bank. Developed by the U.S. Department of Labor, AJB is the biggest and busiest job market in cyberspace. Job seekers can search for job openings and post their résumés where thousands of employers search every day.
ALMIS. America’s Labor Market Information System. ALMIS provides consistent, accessible labor market information (LMI) products, tools, and services. Consortia of states have been working with the U.S. Employment and Training Administration (ETA) to develop a nationwide infrastructure of application systems – America's Job Bank (AJB), Career One-Stop Center System, America's Service Locator (ASL) and America's Career InfoNet (ACINet). ALMIS provides the common definitions, content requirements, and technical standards that underpin these systems.
Adult basic education. Courses of instruction designed to improve the employability of the workforce through instruction in mathematics, reading, language, and workforce readiness skills.
Adult general education. Comprehensive instructional programs designed to improve the employability of the state's workforce through adult basic education, adult secondary education, English for Speakers of Other Languages, vocational-preparatory instruction, and instruction for adults with disabilities.
Adult secondary education. courses through which a person receives high school credit that leads to the award of a high school diploma or courses of instruction through which a student prepares to take the General Educational Development test.
Adult student. A student who is beyond the compulsory school age and who has legally left elementary or secondary school, or a high school student who is taking an adult course required for high school graduation.
Apprenticeship. An early career stage. Students can participate in structured employer-sponsored training at the work site while also attending school to complete rigorous academic courses and technical and occupation instruction. This experience may last three to four years and requires a signed agreement.
Aptitudes. Specific capacities or abilities required of an individual in order to facilitate the learning of some task. Native or innate qualifications which are necessary to perform a job; physical capacities, mental abilities of various kinds, temperaments and interests. (Contrast with "Skills.")
Assessment. Comparing individual career performance to predetermined standards. Assessment can be accomplished through a variety of means: standardized tests, exhibitions of knowledge, etc.
ASVAB. Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery. ASVAB is a timed, multi-aptitude test that helps students identify their abilities via eight modules: Word Knowledge, Paragraph Comprehension, Mathematics Knowledge, Arithmetic Reasoning, General Science, Auto and Shop Information, Mechanical Comprehension, and Electronics Information. ASVAB scores allow students to compare their test performance to a national sample of students at their grade level.
Attributes. Characteristics of information used to identify occupations, schools, etc. for exploration.
Benchmarks. The clearly defined performance standards of a program. They break down long-term goals into identifiable milestones of success. Benchmarks provide the fundamental content elements for the more broadly stated standards.
Career. A lifestyle concept that involves a sequence of work in which one engages throughout a lifetime. Careers are unique to each person and are dynamic, unfolding throughout life. They include not only occupations, but pre-vocational and post vocational concerns as well as how persons integrate their work life roles. The sequence of occupations, jobs, and positions engaged in or occupied throughout the lifetime of a person makes up his or her whole career. One can have a sporting career or a musical career, but most frequently "career" in the 21st century references a working existence: the series of jobs or positions by which one earns one's bread.
Career branding. Helps define who you are, how you are great, and why you should be sought out. Branding is your reputation. Branding is about building a name for yourself, showcasing what sets you apart from other job-seekers, and describing the added value you bring to an employer.
Career Carnival. A software program which uses riddles and puzzles to teach students about occupations. Designed for students in grades 3-7.
Career change. Changing your occupation by devising a strategy to find new career choices. Most experts now predict that the average person will change careers three to five times over the course of his or her work life. Change may occur because you don't enjoy the work as much as you used to. Or maybe you can't progress further in your career.
Career cluster. An organizing tool for providing a context for learning which links post-secondary and/or workplace entry to the school curriculum. Career clusters offer students core academics as well as activities that match their skills and interests. Examples of career clusters include; Health & Human Services; Business Services & Commerce; Engineering, Manufacturing and Technology; Natural Resources; and Arts, Humanities, and Communications. Career Clusters are used to structure career exploration and educational programs. There are a variety of career cluster frameworks, including one generated by the U.S. Department of Education that incorporates 16 clusters.
Career coach. Also called career consultant, career adviser, work-life coach, personal career trainer, and life management facilitator. These professionals have been likened to personal trainers for your life/career, serving the role as your champion, cheerleader, advocate, mentor, partner, and sounding board on all issues related to your job or career search.
Career counseling. A process to ensure that students are provided adequate information on local labor markets and postsecondary learning options other than study at a four-year college, using the following career counseling activities: (1) systematic career awareness activities that begin in primary school and provide career exploration and job-shadowing opportunities in middle and high school; (2) individual education and career plans for students that build on practical knowledge of careers gained through career-awareness activities and on their interests and accomplishments; (3) community-based career centers for reliable, easy-to-use information about employers, occupations, wages, job openings, skill qualifications, and education and training options; and (4) ongoing counseling services to students to help them reevaluate and adjust their career plans
Career exploration. A person's involvement in trying out a variety of activities, roles, and situations in order to learn more about aptitude for or interest in an occupation or other career opportunities
Career development. A variety of program models for career education have been developed. Instructional models for career education programs are often designed to follow a career development continuum of awareness, exploration and experience. At the first level, awareness, individuals participate in learning experiences that increase their awareness of career education principles, occupational and career path alternatives and personal traits, skills and preferences that influence career decisions. Career awareness activities include job shadows, field trips, spend-a-days, occupational inventories, etc. During exploration, individuals expand awareness to begin to explore options that are available to them and that match life career decisions and goals. They begin to make decisions based on career information that they have gathered and knowledge they have about themselves. Exploration activities include, job shadows, spend-a-days, career fairs, career monographs, analyzing labour market information, self-reflection activities, personal and career inventories, etc. At the experiential level, students have made career decisions based on choices available, self-knowledge and information gathered during awareness and exploration levels. The experiential level is more specialized than the others and may imply occupational skilling or training that provides practice and refinement of skills related to a particular job or occupation. Developmental readiness and maturity are closely linked to the depth of experiential learning in which the individual will be involved. Career development is a lifelong process of developing beliefs and values, skills and aptitudes, interests, personality characteristics, and knowledge of the world of work. Career development spans one's entire life and concerns the whole person: the person's past, present, and future work roles. Career development is linked to a person's self-concept, family life, and all aspects of one's environment.
Career fair. There are many types of job and career fairs, from those scheduled during Spring Break for college students to industry-specific fairs for professionals, but they all have a common theme: a chance for a company to meet and screen a large volume of potential job candidates while simultaneously an opportunity for job-seekers to meet and screen a large number of employers.
Career guidance. A systematic program of coordinated information and experiences designed to facilitate individual career development and, more specifically, career management
Career-Interest Inventory. A standardized assessment that has been developed to evaluate a student’s level of interest as they relate to various aspects of career development. These assessments may also be used to allow a student to better understand their preference in types of work settings.
Career mentoring. Career mentoring involves pairing students with adults in the community to support learning about work or other issues related to career development. Most often this activity takes place beyond the regular school day and is a partnership established with a goal of sustainability beyond the course or class in which it was established. Mentoring requires the committed involvement of community adults willing to work with students on an ongoing basis during working hours and beyond.
Career objective. An optional part of your resume, but something you should contemplate whether you place it on your resume or not. It can sharpen the focus of your resume and should be as specific as possible -- and written in a way that shows how you can benefit the employer.
Career paths. Clusters of occupations/careers that are combined together because the people in them share similar interests and strengths. All paths include a variety of occupations requiring different levels of education and training.
Career planning. Determining a suitable career path using knowledge of personal interests, skills and preferred futures (dreams); researching the educational and skill requirements of a variety of potential work and life roles. Career planning is the continuous process of evaluating your current lifestyle, likes/dislikes, passions, skills, personality, dream job, and current job and career path and making corrections and improvements to better prepare for future steps in your career, as needed, or to make a career change.
Career program certificate. A document issued by a training provider to a program completer that serves to provide proof of the training done and the skills achieved. The duration of the program might be less than two years, more than a two-year associate degree but less than a baccalaureate degree, or that required for a post-baccalaureate certificate.
Career resources. A variety of human and material sources provide information and services supporting career planning and career development. Collectively these individuals, service facilities, websites, books, periodicals and other media sources may be termed as career resources, and may be as diverse as a job application form and an interest inventory, a job shadow and a career inventory.
Career Trek. A US software program designed to teach students about the world of work. Designed for elementary students.
CIDS. Career Information Delivery System in the USA. CIDS link occupations to knowledge and skills, link knowledge and skills to programs of study, link programs of study to specific institutions, link specific institutions to costs, and link costs to sources of financial assistance. The ACSCI Standards provide criteria for public and private organizations that are concerned with delivering high quality tools for career development. Their career information and services range from highly specific components, aimed at a single career development function, to comprehensive systems. CIDS are used by young people and adults in public and private elementary and secondary schools, colleges and universities, public and private agencies, rehabilitation firms, libraries, community-based organizations, juvenile and adult correctional facilities, and private businesses.
CIP. Classification of Instruction Programs. The US CIP is a taxonomic coding scheme that contains titles and descriptions of postsecondary instructional programs. It was developed to facilitate the National Center for Education Statistics’ collection and reporting of postsecondary degree completions by major field of study. CIP uses standard classifications that capture the majority of reportable program activity. Originally published in 1980, the CIP has been revised, with the most recent version published in 2000.
CIP Code. The US Classification of Instructional Programs code, a federal six-digit numeric code used to classify career education and training programs by the content of the program. When you select a program CIP code, you are determining which occupations it will be associated with for the display of relevant labor-market information and for the occupational search functions that potential students use to locate training.
CIS. Career Information System. The US National Career Information System, now known as intoCareers.
Competencies (proficiencies). Competencies or proficiencies are defining standards that they clearly set entry qualifications for the next career education step. Attainment of competencies can be a condition of exit (e.g., from high school) or entry (e.g., into a post-secondary program of study).
Competency-based education. An organizational structure for learning/teaching that requires description in advance of the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that a student must possess upon exit from a program or course. Competency-based curricula clearly identify objectives, organize instruction based upon performance standards, and evaluate student performance based upon mastery of competencies.
Community Education. The use of a school or other public facility as a community center operated in conjunction with other public, private, and governmental organizations for the purpose of providing educational, recreational, social, cultural, health, and community services for persons in the community in accordance with the needs, interests, and concerns of that community, including lifelong learning.
Continuing Workforce Education. Instruction that does not result in a vocational certificate, diploma, associate in applied science degree, or associate in science degree. Continuing workforce education is for: (a) Individuals who are required to have training for licensure renewal or certification renewal by a regulatory agency or credentialing body; (b) New or expanding businesses; (c) Business, industry, and government agencies whose products or services are changing so that retraining of employees is necessary or whose employees need training in specific skills to increase efficiency and productivity; or (d) Individuals who are enhancing occupational skills necessary to maintain current employment, to cross train, or to upgrade employment.
Co-operative career education. A work-based learning experience which includes a set of defined competencies, to be completed at a work site, that are based upon the occupational program of study. Students and participating businesses develop written training and evaluation plans that guide instruction and students receive course credit for both their classroom and work experiences. Credit hours and intensity of placements often vary with the course of study.
Cover letter. The letter that accompanies a CV or resume. It may be a motivation letter or just a brief note to attach the resume. It should always accompany your resume when you contact a potential employer. A good cover letter opens a window to your personality (and describes specific strengths and skills you offer the employer). It should entice the employer to read your resume.
Curriculum-Integrated program. A program of study in which students master required academic standards across grades and disciplines through work on complex real-world problems in the classroom, workplace, and community. The learning environment will provide relevance for students beyond a school environment; greater depth of learning and understanding; and greater connection to the whole community. The "program of study" can be within a course, or across two or more courses on the same (or even different) grade level(s). This type of programs is particularly adequate when addressing career education.
CV. Curriculum Vitae. A special type of resume traditionally used within the academic community. Earned degrees, teaching and research experience, publications, presentations, and related activities are featured. Unlike a resume, a CV tends to be longer and more informational than promotional in tone.
Degree Vocational Education Program. a course of study that leads to an associate in applied science degree or an associate in science degree. A degree vocational education program may contain within it one or more occupational completion points and may lead to certificates or diplomas within the course of study. The term is interchangeable with the term "degree career education program."
Demand occupation. An occupation expected to employ increasing numbers of people in the local area.
Distance education. Involves the physical separation of teacher and student. Students and teachers communicate with each other by such means as correspondence courses, audiotapes, computer links, cable television broadcasts and/or satellite hook-ups.
Doctorate. A degree ranking above the Masters degree and normally awarded after two or three years of study, even though most students need more time to finish; the average for many is four to five years. The most common Doctorate is the PhD.
DoE. United States Department of Education. A particular sub-department deals with career education.
DoL. United States Department of Labor. The Department of Labor fosters and promotes the welfare of the job seekers, wage earners, and retirees of the United States by improving their working conditions; advancing their opportunities for profitable employment; protecting their retirement and health care benefits; helping employers find workers; strengthening free collective bargaining; and tracking changes in employment, prices, and other national economic measurements. In carrying out this mission, the Department administers a variety of federal labor laws including those that guarantee workers’ rights to safe and healthful working conditions; a minimum hourly wage and overtime pay; freedom from employment discrimination; unemployment insurance; and other income support.
DOT. Dictionary of Occupational Titles. A U.S. Department of Labor publication which defines about 20,000 occupations. Designed as a job placement tool to facilitate matching job requirements and work skills, the DOT uses interrelationships between job tasks and requirements to group occupations. The DOT has been replaced by the O*Net as the nation’s primary source of occupational information.
Dislocated worker. Someone who has been laid off from his or her job or whose job has been eliminated.
Employability. Having the skills, knowledge and attitudes that are of value to an employer.
Entrepreneurial skills. Entrepreneurial skills represent the knowledge, skills and abilities that will support the selection of a career path of self- or cooperative employment or for the pursuit of a personal venture or project. Key features of the processes associated with being entrepreneurial include innovation, critical thinking, structured planning and risk assessment.
Formation. Investment in education and research which results in an improvement in human skills and knowledge.
Foundation skills. These skills include: (1) basic skills (reading, writing, arithmetic and mathematics, speaking, and listening); (2) thinking skills (creativity, decision taking, problem solving, visualizing, knowing how to learn, and reasoning); and (3) personal qualities (individual responsibility, self-esteem, sociability, self-management, and integrity).
Freelance career. Where you work for yourself and bid for temporary jobs and projects with one or more employers. Freelancing is not an alternative to hard work, but many people enjoy the freedom, flexibility, and satisfaction of working for themselves.
GATB. General Aptitude Test Battery. The GATB is a series of 12 short tests that measure an applicant’s potential ability to perform certain job related tasks.
GOE. Guide for Occupational Exploration. GOE was created by the U.S. Department of Labor and uses an intuitive process to relate general interests to career and learning options. The GOE became a standard career reference after its 1977 release. JIST Publishing currently publishes the GOE and it has been completely revised by a JIST team of experts.
Head hunter. A colloquial term for recruiters, employment agencies or executive search firms that broker human resources. Like real estate, stock brokers and sports agents, headhunters are in the middle of an employment sales transaction: they solicit customers (companies with job openings willing to pay a fee) and they seek talent (people with specific skills).
Home-based careers. Numerous opportunities exist for job-seekers who want more control over time and work, who want job flexibility to spend more time with family by working from home. Unfortunately, this area is also one that has the most potential for scams and other fraudulent activities.
Human capital. The sum of knowledge, disposition, skills and expertise of people belonging to an organization. Contrary to structural capital, human capital is the property of individuals. It is a source of creativity and innovation, and therefore of the competitive advantage of an organization. Human capital is a way of defining and categorizing peoples' skills and abilities as used in employment and otherwise contribute to the economy.
Human performance technology. The bulk of methods and processes used to improve job performance in individuals, groups and organizations.
Human resources. The department dealing with recruiting and further management of personnel matters. The human resources function provides critical support and advice to the management. The attraction, retention and development of high calibre people is a source of competitive advantage and is the responsibility of HR departments.
ICDM. Improved Career Decision Making in a Changing World. ICDM materials were first published by the US National Occupational Information Coordinating Committee (NOICC) in the early 1980's. The purpose of the ICDM curriculum is to help career development facilitators and their clients make wise decisions as participants in a labor market characterized by accelerating economic, demographic, and technological change. America's Career Resource Network supports and publishes the newly revised ICDM.
Immersion courses. In the teaching of foreign languages, the practice of communicating only in the language being taught.
Infusion. A process that blends or integrates career education goals into the existing subject matter at all academic levels.
Internship. A one-on-one relationship that provides for “hands-on” learning in the area of the student’s career interest. A learning contract outlines the expectations and responsibilities of both parties. Employers provide structured work experiences that include workplace readiness and job-specific skill development and that connect to school-based learning. Ideally, students work in a number of departments or positions during their internships so they can have a better career-oriented experience.
Job satisfaction. A term to describe how content an individual is with his or her job. It includes many factors, including the work itself, value to the organization, impact on organization, compensation, and more. When workers are very unhappy with their jobs, they suffer both mentally and physically.
Job shadowing. A student observes the daily routine of an employee and then "interviews" the employee about his/her work and education. This kind of activities are conducted just after the student has finished his or her degree program, and previous to starting a career.
Life coaching. A constellation of techniques utilized by a growing coterie of counselors to aid their clients in transitions in their personal life and in the process of self-actualization. Life coaching draws from a number of disciplines, including sociology, psychology, career counseling, and numerous other types of counseling. The coach, or counselor, applies mentoring, values assessment, behavior modification, behavior modeling, goal-setting, and other techniques in assisting clients. Coaching is an on-going collaborative partnership built on taking action. People hire a coach when they are making a career transition, starting a new business, feeling dissatisfied, re-evaluating life choices, or simply looking for personal and professional breakthroughs.
Lifelong learning. A noncredit course or activity offered by a school district or community college which seeks to address community social and economic issues related to health and human relations, government, parenting, consumer economics, and senior citizens. The course or activity must have specific expected outcomes that relate to one or more of these areas. Generally, this term also refers to the modern understanding of education as a lifelong activity which is necessary all along a person’s career.
Mentor. Experiences which link students with a local business/industry/ community-based individual. Activities may focus on school-related activities or may target those who need support outside the school setting. Mentors are encouraged to support the development of academic skills and provide guidance on career-related, interdisciplinary projects, and workplace culture.
Mentoring. A formal relationship between an individual with significant experience (mentor) and another (mentee) where each develops professionally through the transfer of experience and the opportunity to seek alternative perspectives.
Moonlighting. The experience of working multiple jobs (also referred to as dual or multiple jobholding). People working multiple jobs come from just about every demographic group. Appears to be on the rise.
Motivation letter. A letter to the company offering a job, in which the applicant explains his or her reasons to apply and provides specific information on why the job is especially adequate. Contrary to the attached resume or CV, the motivation letter is personalized for each specific case.
NCDA. US National Career Development Association. NCDA is a division of the American Counseling Association (ACA). The mission of NCDA is to promote the lifelong career development of all people. To achieve this mission, NCDA provides service to the public and professionals involved with, or interest in, career development, including professional development activities, publications, research, public information, professional standards, advocacy, and recognition for achievement and service.
NCDG. US National Career Development Guidelines. A set of competencies and indicators for career guidance curriculum and programs developed for various age groups.The National Career Development Guidelines are a competency-based approach to career development that helps states, schools, human service agencies and colleges and universities plan quality career guidance and counseling programs.
NOICC. National Occupational Information Coordinating Committee. Congress established NOICC in 1976 as a federal-state partnership that provided a framework for addressing workforce development and career preparation. In 1998 the new Workforce Investment Act transferred NOICC’s occupational information functions to the Secretary of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, and the Employment and Training Administration. The Perkins Act moved NOICC’s career development authority to the U.S. Department of Education’s Office of Vocational and Adult Education.
Non-traditional careers. Careers in which fewer than 25 percent of the workforce is of one gender. There are many pros and cons for job-seekers considering working in a non-traditional career path.
O*NET. The Occupational Information Network. O*Net is an easy-to-use database accessible from any web browser. It contains comprehensive information on job requirements and worker competencies. O*NET replaced the Dictionary of Occupational Titles and is the nation’s primary source of occupational information.
OIS. Occupational Information System. A computerized system that provides information on occupational supply and demand, education and training programs, current and projected employment for state and sub-state areas, wages, occupational profiles by industry, and related information.
On-the-Job Training. Through their jobs in the workplace, students receive hands-on training in specific occupational skills. A general term, "on-the-job training" is part of the activities described within cooperative education and registered youth apprenticeships.
One-stop career centers. State networks of conveniently located centers that each provide employment, education, and training services all in one place. Some One-Stop Career Centers have all employment, training, and education partners and their programs on-site, while others have only selected partners and programs on-site. They are conveniently located within communities and provide a wealth of information and assistance for job seekers, education and training seekers, and employers.
Online learning. e-Learning over the Internet (as opposed to a local or wide area network).
OOH. Occupational Outlook Handbook. The OOH is a nationally recognized source of career information designed to provide assistance to individuals making decisions about their future work lives. Revised every two years, the OOH describes job duties, working conditions, necessary training and education, earnings, and expected job prospects in a wide range of occupations.
Peterson’s. Vendor of US national school information and other related educational data.
Portfolio. Portfolios are used by young people and adults to organize their career and educational plans. Also referred to as portfolios, employability skills portfolios, career passports and career plans, they provide convenient storage of career information, educational plans, résumés, transcripts, letters of reference, statements of philosophy, awards and honors, and examples of work. A portfolio is also described as a purposeful collection of student work that exhibits effort, progress, and achievements in one or more areas. The collection includes student participation in selecting the contents, the criteria for selection, the criteria for judging merit, and evidence of student reflection
Postsecondary. Postsecondary education refers to education beyond high school, including community college, technical colleges, universities, colleges that offer baccalaureate degree and higher, and private technical schools, as well as certified apprenticeships and on-the-job training. Postsecondary education and training can be provided in traditional classrooms, at worksites, and/or via distance learning facilities.
Prerequisite. A requirement for registration in a particular course of study. For example, a beginning course in psychology may be a "prerequisite" to an advanced course. Some programs have a prerequisite that the student be a high school graduate or have a G.E.D. to gain admission.
Real Game. The Real Game series includes six programs designed to bring real life into the classroom. The curriculum focuses on teaching employability skills through non-threatening role-play activities. The Real Game Series is a partnership guided by an Operations Group with membership from America’s Career Resource Network Association, National Life/Work Center, Inc., and Real Game, Inc.
Resume. A document containing a summary or listing of relevant job experience and education, usually for the purpose of securing a new job. Often the r sum is the first item a potential employer encounters regarding the job seeker, and therefore a large amount of importance is often ascribed to it.
Sabbatical year. A sabbatical year is a prolonged hiatus, typically one year, in the career of an otherwise successful individual taken in order to fulfill some dream, e.g. writing a book or travelling extensively. Some universities and other institutional employers of scientists, physicians, and/or academics offer a paid sabbatical as an employee benefit.
SCANS. The Secretary’s Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills. The Former U.S. Secretary of Labor, Lynn Martin, chartered The Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS) in 1990 with the goal of encouraging a high-performance economy characterized by high-skill, high-wage employment. DOL sought to accomplish this by defining critical skills that everyone needs in order to succeed in the workforce and in life. Called the "SCANS skills," these competencies were then compiled into a report in 1991 called A SCANS Report for America 2000. The final report defined a high-performance workplace as one that reinforces the foundation and application of skills such as computation and literacy. Additionally, the report stated that high-performance workers need advanced soft skills, including the ability to work on teams, solve complex problems in systems, and understand and use technology.
School-to-career program. As defined by the US federal School-to-Work Opportunities Act, a program combining school-based learning and on-the-job instruction into a structured learning experience with the following attributes: (1) governance by broad coalitions of community partners (students, parents, high schools, employers, workers, postsecondary educational institutions, community-based organizations, and government); (2) employer provision of structured worksite learning and paid work experience; (3) school integration of academic and vocational learning; (4) coordination and integration of school-based and workplace learning; (5) connections between high school and postsecondary learning for at least two years; and (6) certification of occupational and academic skills mastery, recognized by firms across industries and nationwide.
Self-employment. A self-employed person works for himself/herself instead of as an employee of another person or organization, drawing income from a trade or business. This is less stable than working as an employee but tends to earn a higher hourly income or rate.
Self-instruction. A process in which materials take learners step-by-step through an instructional process; self-assessment exercises are a central feature and instruction can be paper-based or computer-based.
Skills. The learned abilities and knowledge which must be developed for successful job performance. (Contrast with "Aptitudes.")
SOHO. Acronym for Small Office/Home Office, the fastest growing market for computer hardware and software. So-called SOHO products are specifically designed to meet the needs of professionals who work at home or in small offices.
Twenty-First Century Community Learning. Special US federally funded career development program to provide dollars to schools to partner with communities to create after-school programs.
Undergraduate. Those programs leading to a bachelors or first professional degree as well as to diplomas and certificates. Students in undergraduate programs are called Undergraduates.
WIA. Workforce Investment Act. The Workforce Investment Act of 1998 rewrote US federal statutes governing programs of job training, adult education and literacy, and vocational rehabilitation, replacing them with streamlined and more flexible components of workforce development systems. The Act consolidated more than sixty federal training programs through three block grants to the states: Adult Employment and Training, Disadvantaged Youth Employment and Training, and Dislocated Worker Employment and Training. Funding and decision-making authority was transferred from the federal level to states and local areas. Local Workforce Development Boards were charged with developing One-Stop Career Centers that grant access to services to the public.
Work-based learning. Provides experiences and activities for student learners to understand the relevance of what is learned in school to what it takes to be successful in the workplace. It also provides opportunities for student learners to acquire information in general workplace competencies.
Work exploration. In those courses where students gain experiences in the workplace for the purposes of learning more about work, for developing generic employability skills, and for exploring and experiencing potential career decisions before they must be made in a real sense, students are using work-based learning for exploratory purposes.
Work readiness. Characterized by students being prepared for and able to adjust to the culture and demands of the workplace. Methods for ensuring work readiness among students include: a formal orientation to the program's goals and expectations; workshops or courses on basic job-related skills; job-shadowing or visits to different workplaces; and school-based enterprises in which students develop job skills by running real businesses.
Work study. Those students who use work-based learning to develop or enhance skills specific to a particular occupation (e.g., welding) are pursuing skills development in a work study approach.
Workforce development education. Adult general education or vocational education consisting of a continuing workforce education course or a program of study leading to an occupational completion point, a vocational certificate, an applied technology diploma, or a vocational education degree.
Youth apprenticeship. A program of study that integrates school- and work-based learning coordinated with business, industry, and labor and facilitates the transition from secondary to postsecondary education by providing the apprentice the opportunity to earn a high school diploma, postsecondary credential/diploma, and Certificate of Occupational Skills.